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K2019Dec10

Magyar-Etruscan Affiliations from a Magyar Point of View, part 1

MAGYAR-ETRUSCAN AFFILIATIONS
FROM A MAGYAR POINT OF VIEW

Susan Tomory

Professor Mario Alinei is a linguist, who has been a member and President of the International Society for Dialectology and Geolinguistics for seven years. He is also a member of seven – linguistics related – academies and societies and the founder of Societa Linguistica Italiana. He has written several books and over 200 articles within his chosen field. Among these the Origini delle lingue d’Europe (two volumes) and the Etrusco: Una forma arcaica di ungherese, (the Magyar title: Ősi kapocs, A magyar-etruszk nyelvrokonság) are of great significance to the above subject and they also help broaden the present frontiers of linguistics.

Professor Alinei has written an extra foreword to the Hungarian edition of his book, not only to make the Etruscan subject more familiar to the Hungarian readers but also to make it more familial, similar to the familial connection of the Italian readers toward the Etruscan culture. This separate foreword emphasizes the following:

1. He presumes that the Etruscan subject is far removed from the Hungarian reader, since Hungarian universities do not have an Etruscan department and consequently a sense of family could not develop.

2. Geographically speaking, the Etruscan origin from the Carpathian Basin can be considered proven fact.

3. He stated that “Of course the Carpathian Basin’s Danube people are not yet Magyars.”

4. According to the continuity theory, the Uralian peoples were already present in Paleolithic times in the Eastern parts of Europe during the last Ice Age, which he dates to 13,000 B.C. The Eastern-most group of all these “Finno-Ugrian” people were the Magyars and he designates the banks of the river Ob as their homeland at this time.

5. “…the present spread of the Ural languages completely corresponds with our theory” states the author. The only exception is the Magyar...

6. “…separated from the rest of the Ugor peoples before the period of final settlements in order to occupy the Carpathian Basin.”

7. With a giant leap, Dr. Alinei lands at the Magyar arrival in the Carpathian Basin and the much debated question of the “double occupancy” represented by the Avar arrival prior to the Home-coming[1] of Árpád’s people.

8. Prof. Alinei stresses two theories of continuity in today’s scholarship in order to understand the Paleolithic cultures. The one, which he and Hungarian researchers favor, is the Uralian theory, the other is the Indo-European and Altaic continuity and he suggests the following Internet address for further reading: www.continuitas.com

9. According to the Indo-European and Altaic continuity, the Indo-European population was indigenous to the greater part of Europe and the Indo-European parts of Asia, while the Altaic people were indigenous to Central Asia.

10. According to Professor Alinei, the combination of the above-mentioned two theories of continuity makes a new theory feasible, which also helps to prove that the Magyars are the ancestors of the Etruscans.

11. According to the Altaic theory, the Turkish and Mongolian people have lived since the Paleolithic Age in Central Asia, where the great cultures belonged to the Altaic languages and also those first nomadic horsemen appeared in 4,000 B.C. on the Western steppes of Asia and in Europe.

12. Prof. Alinei emphasizes the great importance of using the horse as mode of transportation and also the development of the kurgan cultures, most of which belonged to the Altaic peoples and must have belonged to the Turkish language group.

13. According to Prof. Alinei, all Hungarian readers know what great influence the Turkish language had on the Magyar. He mentions the following:

a. All the words pertaining to the horse and riding in the Magyar language are of Turkish origin.

b. These words correspond to the words of the Obi-Ugor languages.

c. Other Turkish (mainly Chuvas) loanwords concerning agriculture, societal and political expressions do not correspond with the Obi-Ugor expressions. (Italics are mine. S.T.)

14. He comes to the following conclusions from the contents of the above (a-c) points:

a. The Magyar and the Obi-Ugor languages were unified in Western Asia in the fourth and third centuries B.C.

b. When the Magyars separated from the Obi-Ugors they came under Turkish influence again.

c. The Magyars arrived in 3,000 B.C. in the Carpathian Basin and their role in the formation of the Villanova and Etruscan cultures is undeniable.

d. The Magyar influence is present in both types of incoming people, whether they arrived on land or by the sea-routes.

e. There may have been further connections with the Sea-People. The official Hungarian scholarship acknowledges these Sea-People as the Magyars of 2,000 B.C.

f. One of these is the famous Tursha group, who fought with the Egyptians. The Lemnos inscriptions make this supposition even more plausible.

15. Researchers of the Latin language state that the two Latin names of the Etruscans, Tusci and Etrusci originate from the Greek Tyrsenoi. Prof. Alinei poses the following question: could all these names be connected with the Turkish name Turchi? Or is it possible that this name precedes the long line of Altaic or Turkish tribal names which were given to the Magyars during the course of history: Magyars, Avars, Turks, Bashkirians, Huns, which are all of Altaic origins?

Prof. Alinei places the birth of the ancient Magyars, “who are believed to be a Turkish people” to the Bronze Age, when the spread of population was helped by the growing industrial development of the Carpathian Basin.

16. Professor Alinei has based his research on the results of Massino Pallottino’s hermeneutic/combinatory method, which examines the internal structure of the language. Prof. Alinei uses these results, but he also goes a step further when he compares the Etruscan language with other languages.

According to Etruscologists, this language is

a. agglutinative

b. it places the emphasis onto the first vowel, like the Magyar and the other Uralian languages.

c. vowel harmony is present

d. it uses exclusively aphonic occlusive consonants

e. This language is characterized by an open syllable structure, which is connected with a syllable ending with a vowel.

Professor Alinei’s foreword brings many thoughts to the forefront, concerning the Magyar and Etruscan languages, which he discusses on the following 500 pages. Since he is not familiar with the Magyar language and the Magyar culture, the elucidation of these thoughts can be accomplished only by a similarly extensive work. My present article is designed to outline the road toward a fuller understanding and some points of contact.

Before I begin this, I have to point out the anti-Magyar activities of the Hungarian Academy of Science (MTA), which are not fully realized in the scientific circles outside of Hungary. Beginning with the Hapsburg domination of Hungary, there has been an ongoing cultural and linguistic genocide, combined with efforts of material ruination, even in our days, which do not shy away from the use of any weapon. This knowledge will be useful mostly to the scientific circles outside of Hungary and the newly educated young Hungarian scientists and the non-professional but interested citizens who don’t have the tools to realize these machinations. Their research – by necessity – is based upon false information and has to be reevaluated.

*

It is noticeable, even in the first lines of Professor Alinei’s introduction, how much Magyar history and, through it, the consciousness of the entire nation has been violated through the above-mentioned Hapsburg oppression, whose spirit still holds the nation captive. This trend strove to eradicate all Hungary’s historical memories and her right to exist in Europe. This effort disseminated and perpetuated false historical data to the unsuspecting foreign or young Hungarian researchers, so they based their works on false premises. For this reason, impartial researchers were unable to achieve correct results. This trend was especially strong in the 19th century, marked by the fact that the Hungarian Academy of Science -- which was founded by Count István Széchenyi to serve the elevation of the national language and culture – became the puppet of Hapsburg tyranny, so much so that the founder of this institution withdrew his intellectual and material support from it in an official document.

All the Academy’s officials were placed forcibly into their respective positions by the Hapsburg regime. They represented a foreign spirit and were the tools of Hungary’s destruction. For example:

Emperor Franz Joseph’s distinguished accomplice was Armin Wamberger. His historical views moved within the limits of reality until he was invited to a dinner by the Emperor. After this, he began to preach the Asiatic origin of the Hungarians and explained the arrival of Prince Árpád in the 9th century as the arrival of the entire Hungarian nation.[2] His work and the works of similar “scholars” was the equivalent of a cultural Tatar-destruction.

The MTA’s influence, or let us state clearly, the waves of its unrecognized falsification of history, left its mark on the work of Professor Alinei, this very objective Italian researcher. Whenever he talks about the Magyar past, the Magyar history, he relies on suppositions, possibilities, when there are masses of accurate linguistic and cultural data available among the works of scholars who were out of the favor of the MTA.

The above statement – falsification of history – seems rather strong.

An episode brings the validity of this statement closer to the reader. Historian. Géza Radics, in his book Eredetünk és őshazánk (page 19) documents the following: Komoróczy, Géza, head of the Hebrew department of the ELTE (Eötvös Lóránt Tudomány Egyetem) held a lecture in Chicago August 22, 1981. He began his lecture with the following statement to summarize his view dealing with the works of linguists, concerning the Sumerian-Magyar connection: „A sumér-magyar rokonság kérdése akkor se érdekelne, ha bizonyítva lenne” (Translation: I would not be interested in the question of the Sumerian-Hungarian relationship even if it were proven.) Ecce the “impartiality” of the official Hungarian Academia under the leadership of the MTA, which is still the elevated instrument of a long past Hapsburg regime, which paved the road of both the Drang nach Osten Germanic expansionism and the Slavic spread toward the West.

I would like to discuss some of Professor Alinei’s introductory statements, followed by some samples of his word-comparisons. The thorough examination of his excellent work requires an equally thoughtful and extensive work, which will follow at a later date.

I bring Professor Alinei’s remarks in italics. They are not a verbatim quotation since the Italian original is not within reach. The remarks in the preceding lines, written in the usual manner, are mine.

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The Etruscan subject is far from the Magyar reader, since the Hungarian universities do not have an Etruscan department and, for this reason, there never developed a “familial” connection.

Even though the “official” scholarship distanced itself from the Etruscan subject and all the other languages – which come under the title Uralian today –, many selfless scientists worked to fill this gap with no outside help.

Adorján Magyar researched the Etruscan language and has written a book in the Italian language about the subject. This book was published in Italy in the 1930’s or early forties. He discussed three Italian dialects as the clearest remnants of the Etruscan language. In his Az ősműveltség (translation: The Ancient Culture), he organized the connection between the ancient Magyar and the Etruscan language. I will discuss these later.

Dr. Zsigmond Varga, Professor of Ancient Near Eastern languages, discussed in his works the structure and connections of these ancient languages, especially the Sumerian. His observations may be of value in researching the Etruscan connections.

Rev. Géza Kur was a Hungarian minister living in the USA, who spent his years researching the Etruscan-Magyar connection. His works – by necessity – focused on grave inscriptions, which were more readily available to him. It is to be feared that his life-work will be lost.

Historian, Dr. Tibor Baráth, researched the monosyllabic Magyar words. Even though he focused on the Sumerian and Egyptian languages, several of the word elements he mentioned in his work, The Ancient Hungarians – which is an abbreviated version of his six-volume Hungarian work of the same title – are connected with the development of the Etruscan language. I am thinking here of the language development and language changes of the migrating people after the Ice Age.

Rev. Zoltán nagyernyei Szabó – having been a missionary for years in North Africa – constructed a five-language dictionary of these languages and their connection with the Magyar language. This dictionary may be a guide toward the further connections of the Etruscan language.

H. Zebisch, who lives in the city of Schärding in Bavaria and is an engineer by profession, studied the Etruscan language and published a book concerning this subject. He also held a lecture at the MTA, concerning the agglutinative aspect of both the Etruscan and the Magyar. The MTA did not support his efforts and used the well- developed weapon of silence and ridicule concerning his work.

Árpád Orbán’s work, Folio Hungarica, Déli magyar őshaza, az új délies, sokszöges, poligonális szórokonítási rendszer és diadalútja (translation: Folio Hungarica, the Southern Hungarian Ancient Home and the New Polygonal Linguistic Method in Word Comparisons) researched the languages in the following groups:

a. Magyar, Slavic, Latin, German

b. Sumerian, Akkadian

c. Ancient Greek, Ancient Turk

d. Present day classifications

He completed his research at the Sorbonne University in the early days of computerizations. His research shows that the English language contains 4% ancient etymons, the Latin 5%, the now extinct Ancient Turk 25%, the Magyar 68%.

The summary of his book states the following: “The III. Volume of our book and its theses takes into account the new polygonal, complex method of research and its further connections with the many subjects that touch other branches of science, which were also left out or were modified in almost their entirety by the imperialist HAPSBURG line, who were in power for over one hundred years and these (researchers) could not rid themselves from the elevated emotional spirit and prejudices like Halévy’s Bible research. The multitude of these more than conservative “professionals” was frequently led by foreign interests.

On page 103 of his book, he discusses the Altaic connections of the Magyar language and its treatment in the “Northern line” of scholarship. Some examples:

According to linguist Géza Bárczy the Magyar language is of Chuvas character. He cannot understand the Iranian influence, which occurred at the same time… The Onogurs are the ancestors of the Magyars. “Trained in the Turkish school (co-existence) the Magyars reached the higher levels of nomadic culture.”

Péter Hajdu, linguist:

“Very carefully, we may say only that the transmitting tribes of the Turkish loanwords of the Ugor age cannot be identified historically.”

Concerning the Turkish loanwords, Orbán states the following on page 109:

The 150-200 years of the Kazár age and its ‘Turkish-type leadership’, which became elevated in the Magyar ancient life by the Northern school, are not enough to adopt the 200-300 Turkish type words which are acknowledged by this school. As we have seen, even the ancient layers of the Magyar language show a settled, agricultural people with developed societal structure, with well-developed literate and law related culture-words. These words are more numerous than all the so-called Turkish-style words the Northern school permits as loan-words in the Magyar language. This vocabulary by the way is not the accessory of a nomadic people! If for no other reason, we have to consider the Northern School of linguistics and ancient history as unscientific.”

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Geographically one can consider the Etruscan origin from the Carpathian Basin as proven.

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Of course the Carpathian Basin and Danube people are not yet Magyars.”

All the linguistic, archeological, ethnographical and other cultural heritage of the ancient population of the Carpathian Basin proves the ancient presence of the Magyars here.

In the field of archaeology and anthropology, I will mention here only the excavations at Bodrogköz[3], where the remains in the 6000 year-old graves were of the same Rh negative blood-type as the present day inhabitants. The excavations in the same 6000 year-old strata at Vésztő-Mágor show a continuous habitation, through the Avar age to the present. The profile of the 6000 year-old statue shows the same features as those of the present inhabitants.

In the evolutionary layers of the European languages we can observe that the Magyar language was always the transmitter until these ancient words blossomed into the great variety of cultural words. I would like to refer here again to the afore-mentioned article of Adorján Magyar but he listed thousands of similar word-groups and their spread into other languages in his The Ancient Culture (Az ősműveltség).

In the field of material culture, I feel it is important to mention the ancient site of Ohábaponor, Erdély (Transylvania), with good quality Mousterian-type stone tools with a great variety of animal remains, among which – it is important to mention from our subject’s point of view – we find the evolutionary traces of the ancient horse: the cold-blooded ancient horse (equus aff.Abeli Ant.) and the medium-sized ancient horse (equus ferus fossilis Pall). In other Transylvanian sites, huge quantities of decorative elements can be found and the complete lack of arms is striking. It is also from Transylvania where the Sicul peoples’ favorite decorative elements began to migrate, first to the Aegean islands and later found their way into the Etruscan and Celtic cultures.

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According to Professor Alinei’s theory of the Stone Age continuity, the Ural people were already present in Eastern Europe in Paleolithic times, during the last Ice Age, which he places into the timeline of 13,000 B.C. According to him, the eastern-most part of these “Finno-Ugrian” people was the Magyar and he places their territory at the river Ob.

Not one example can be found within the history of Mankind’s cultural development that could place the Magyars to the East. Every sign points to the Magyar presence–from the most ancient times on–in the Carpathian Basin. The deeper we probe into time, the closer we come in place to the Carpathian Basin and the Magyars’ ancient presence there. I am attaching as Appendix 2 a table taken from my book Kezdeteink (Our beginnings) showing our continued presence in the Carpathian Basin.

The best measure of a people’s cultural development is the presence and the advanced state of its writing system. The Magyar literacy is proven by the Tatárlaka tablets from 7,000 B.C. Their ancient characters translate into Magyar text[4]. These tablets were found in situ which prove their origin in the Carpathian Basin. Zsófia Torma found 10,387 clay tablets in Tordos, Transylvania. These are 4,500 years old. She identified 4 Székely-Magyar rovás (runic) signs, which later research extended to nine easily- identifiable characters. All these early beginnings took on their final form in the Székely-Magyar rovás (runic writing). The structure of the signs for numbers shows that the Etruscan people were the first heirs – with some minor changes – of this system of numerical rovás.

The Latin heirs of this script did not recognize its internal structure, which was completely destroyed in their hands (Appendix no. 5). We have to add to the history of the Magyar rovás that, when – under papal guidance – the Hungarian King István ordered these “pagan” writings destroyed, Székely (Sicul) people living in the mountains, separate from the rest of society, continued to use this script and preserved it to our day. Considering that it was not the well-educated people but the people of the lower rungs of the societal ladder, who preserved this writing, it becomes clear that in Magyar society there were no illiterate people from ancient times on.

I also have to mention that, if we speak of any cultural aspect of people, may that be the language, writing, folksongs, ethnic art – and we may continue ad infinitum, -- the origin of these cultural products goes back thousands of years. The unbelievable richness of the Magyar language and the perfection of its ancient script indicate a society, which lived a peaceful and settled life for thousands of years.

Considering that the ancient layer of the Magyar language can frequently be found in the European languages, this proves the central position of the Hungarian language and homeland. For this reason we have to recognize the pre-Villanovan language as a language which originated from the Magyar language. At this point article 2. can be proven linguistically too and also the fact that the Magyar culture was already present in the Carpathian Basin before the Bronze Age.

In order to establish the linguistic validation of this statement, it is necessary to re-evaluate the methods of present day linguistics and to bring to the forefront the Magyar word-root structure which is already being re-evaluated by several Magyar linguists. The inherent value of the system of nature-words and cultural-words in language transmission was worked out by Adorján Magyar, who stressed that the base of any culture-word is a nature-word. If two languages share a culture-word the transmitter of this word is the language where its nature-word base exists, and the other language, where the nature-word does not exist, is the borrower. He explains this with the word-root (stone) and its culture-word derivatives as they appear in different European languages. (See Appendix 4)

The so-called “talking statues” are also a form of early literacy. Here I will discuss the Tűzköves statue, which has the following message:

The statue shows a man sitting on a chair (szék). His face is wedge-shaped (ék). He holds a sickle (szike) on his shoulder. His clothing is decorated with wedge-shaped (ék) lines. All these syllables spell the word Székely (Sicul), the name of one of the Magyar ethnic groups of 4,500 B.C.

We tend to forget that a long time is required for language formation. The extended vocabulary of a language signals its age and the ages upon which its formation depends. Stacked libraries contain the necessary materials to prove this thesis. The Magyar language is well-equipped to express everything beginning from its ancient one-vowel word[5] for ancient to the specific concepts of our modern age. Non-Magyar linguists, who know this language, bow in admiration to its qualities:

The Italian linguist Mezzofanti, who spoke over fifty languages and knew the Magyar language perfectly, stated the following: “The Magyars are not even aware what treasure lies in their language.”[6]The famous man of letters and diplomat, Sir John Bowring, was the first to translate the gems of Magyar folk poetry into English. There are several quotations of his statements. For a full review of Sir John Bowring’s Hungarian connections, see the article by Zsolt Bánhegyi, chief of the MTA Library’s computer department, on http://www.matud.iif.hu/04apr/08.html You will find a widely-circulated quotation you will find in Appendix 7.

In the following I am bringing the quotation found by Dr. József Végvári:

The Magyar language stands afar-off and alone. The study of other tongues will be found of exceedingly little use towards its right understanding. It is moulded in a form essentially its own, and its construction and composition may be safely referred to an epoch when most of the living tongues of Europe either had no existence, or no influence on the Hungarian region.” (Preface vi.)*

“It is this much and it is not little” says Professor Végvári as he continues: “From the Introduction that follows (Introduction p. iv) we learn for example that Bowring was fully aware of one of the basic characteristics of the Magyar language: the system of radicals and word-clusters which is still known by only a few linguists. Moreover: he was the first in the world to publish in print the Magyar folk poetry. Bowring’s work was studied and published by Aurél Varannai – as far as he was able to -- since regrettably the Bowring material presently cannot be accessed.” (Debrecen, November 23. 1997. Dr. József Végvári.)

Maybe the presently inaccessible material contains the widely-circulated Bowring quotation of Appendix 7? Who knows? Future Magyar researchers may have a chance to clear up this question. Here I have to mention that the still unpublished linguistic works of the great Magyar linguist, Sándor Körösi Csoma,[7] reside under lock and key in the Library of the British Museum.

The study of a young Magyar computer-scientist states that the full richness of the Magyar vocabulary can be expressed only in astronomical numbers.

From an anthropological point of view, the Carpathian Basin is the only territory, which was able to provide such a continuous, peaceful environment. Prof. Evan Hadingham, expert on the European Ice Age, stated that the population of Central Europe achieved a high degree of human evolution independently from other influences.[8] Later he clarifies the exact location of this “Central Europe” and he places it in the Danube Valley, between the cities of Érd and Tata in Hungary.

Sagas of the origin of the Magyars mention the island of Csallóköz – which is near the places Prof. Hadingham mentioned – as the land of their birth, where the memory of mankind’s Golden Age is preserved here in the territory of the Danube. Modern archaeology supports their statements.

According to Greek legends, Heracles seized the Tree of Life from the land of the Danube and planted it into Greek soil.

Sumerian lore tells us that the wood for the bed of the Sumerian Inanna arrived also from the Danube to the Fertile Crescent.

Sanudo’s 15th century map shows the exact place of these activities: he drew the Island of Csallóköz to a size covering almost all of Europe in order to emphasize its importance in the development of human culture.

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“…the present spread of the Uralian language fully supports the suppositions of our theory” says Prof. Alinei and he adds that the only exception is the Magyar, who

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“…separated itself from the rest of the Ugrian stock during the years of non-permanent settlements, in order to occupy the Carpathian Basin.”

The Magyars – who were cited as the only exception – could not have separated from the rest of the Ugrian stock at an age of impermanent settlements, since we can readily perceive that they were the indigenous inhabitants of the Carpathian Basin. The only possible appearance of Magyars at this given time comes from some of the Magyar groups who migrated out of the Carpathian Basin because of problems of overpopulation there, or simply to explore different lands. The ethnic components and the routes of these wandering groups can be accurately charted by following the appearance of their very specific word-groups in lands outside the Carpathian Basin. The presence of such migrating groups can be found in the developing Sumerian, Egyptian and Etruscan cultures, to mention only the most well known.

Our linguistic contact with the Sumerian language was researched by Dr. Zsigmond Varga, Professor of Ancient Near Eastern languages. His work was continued by Dr. Ida Bobula; her work was supported by Professor Deimel. Presently Dr. Ágnes Gyárfás and Dr. Veronika Marton carry forward this work.

Here I need to add the recently published work of Ágnes Buró, (née Benedekfy), entitled: Egy titokzatos nép holt (?) nyelve: AZ ETRUSZK (Translation: A mysterious people’s dead (?) language: The Etruscan.) The book was published with the help of Dr. Ágnes Gyárfás, Director of the Nagy Lajos University of Miskolc (full title: Miskolci Bölcsész Egyesület, Nagy Lajos Király Magánegyeteme). Mrs. Buró utilizes research into the Etruscan language and re-evaluates some of the Etruscan characters. With this help, she is able to reconstruct these ancient texts, which thus become understandable in the Magyar language.

The Carpathian origin of the Magyar language and culture was studied by Prof. Grover S. Krantz, Professor of Anthropology at the Washington University. He organized the basic components of cultural and linguistic spread, first within the American Indian cultures, then he turned his attention to Europe. He found twelve language-groups, from which he originated the European languages we know today. He placed the birth of European languages in pre-Mesolithic times, with the Carpathian Basin as its center.[9]

In his Geographical Development of European Languages, he recognizes the Magyar language, – which until now was considered and treated as Europe’s stepchild – as the base of European culture. According to his theory, the Indo-European languages developed very late in time in Europe and, for this reason, 30% of these languages indicate another, non-European origin. For example, he shows that, on the early maps of Europe, there are no Indo-European river names. We are interested in the following:

The unexpected conclusions here are mainly in the area of increased antiquity ascribed to the original Indo-European dispersion itself, and in the longer residence indicated for some of its subdivisions in their present locations. This would include, for example, developing Greek in its present area since 6500 BC., and Celtic in Ireland since 3500 BC. The antiquity of Magyar in Hungary may be equally surprising: I find it to be a Mesolithic speech that predates the Neolithic entry.”

And a little later:

In at least one major instance the commonly assumed direction of migration of population is reversed here. It is usually stated, that the Uralic Magyars moved into Hungary from an eastern source in the 9th century A.D. I find instead that all the other Uralic speakers expanded out of Hungary in the opposite direction, and at a much earlier date.”

According to Krantz, the network of dialects of different regions is understandable to people living in close proximity to one another. This situation changes according to the distances placed between them. He believes that 10,000 years ago Europe and the Near East was one linguistic network. This view coincides with the one held by the Hungarian historian Dr. Tibor Baráth.

Professor Krantz’s theory accepts the theory of great migrations, only as far they become necessary to counter overpopulation. According to him, every nation was born and lived its life, achieved nationhood on lands where they presently reside en masse. Adorján Magyar – who spoke eight languages and was very familiar with the Magyar ethnography, music and culture in general -- stated similarly, nearly a hundred years ago, that every product of a culture remains alive the longest in its place of origin. The root of cultures that seem to have disappeared from the stage of history is still recognizable in their place of origin: in the Magyar language and culture of the Carpathian Basin.[10]

Traces of this ancient language can be found worldwide and the geographic names of distant continents even carry the formative role of this ancient language. The thousands of these geographic names were charted by Dr. Bátor Vámos Tóth and his work-group.

The presence of the Magyar language at such an extensive geographic spread going into ancient times is the proof of a once unified world-language of which the longest surviving remnant is the Magyar.

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The “debated question” of the Magyar conquest, or the double conquest…”

The above debated question of conquest by Prince Árpád’s people can easily be solved by taking into consideration the frequent return to the homeland of people who left the Carpathian Basin in more ancient times. The “debated double conquest” refers to the returning groups of the Avar-Magyar people. Géza Radics’s works extensively deal with these returns and the ethnicity of the Carpathian Basin. We may count the present return of the 1956 refugees to Hungary – who left due to unbearable pressure of history in those years -- as such an occasion, even though on a miniature scale.

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Up to these points the theories of Turkish coexistence, the connection with Asia rest upon chains of supposition only.

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According to Professor Alinei the combination of the two theories of continuity will make room for a new theory, which will help to prove that the Magyars are the ancestors of the Etruscans.

The linguistic, and other cultural traces of the ancient Magyar presence in the Carpathian Basin will make the early connections of the Magyar and Etruscan culture clear.

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According to the Altaic theory, the Turkish and Mongolian people were already in Central Asia beginning with the Paleolithic, where “not only the great cultures belonged to the Altaic language group, but also those first nomadic horsemen and their people who lived in the 4th c. B.C. on the Western steppes of Asia and in Europe.”

The development of culture and literacy is possible only under peaceful, settled conditions. If the Magyars had led a horse-riding, fighting, nomadic life, we could not talk – for example – of Etruscan-Magyar relationships, of which the most illuminating aspect is the transmission of writing.[11]

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The most representative aspect of this age is the employment of the horse for riding and the formation of the kurgan cultures, most of which had to belong to the Altaic people and the Turkish language group.

This thesis rests only upon suppositions. The so-called Turkish relationship I shall discuss in a later section.

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According to Professor Alinei, all Hungarian readers are aware of the great influence the Turkish language had upon the Magyar language. He mentions the following examples:

a. All Magyar words pertaining to the horse and to riding are of Turkish origin.

b. These expressions are the same as their Ob-Ugrian counterparts.

c. All the other Turkish (primarily Chuvas) loanwords pertaining to agriculture, society, and politics do not show a relationship with the Ob-Ugrian languages.

I quoted in the preceding part of this study Gosztonyi’s research in connection with the Turkish influence, according to which – I have to add – the supposed length of time of the Turkish-Magyar coexistence was not enough to form any significant linguistic connection. I also have to mention that the linguistic dictionaries, prepared under the guidance of the MTA, very openly strive to derive every Magyar word from a foreign tongue. Such an example is the Magyar csizma (boot) which – according to the MTA – is a Turkish loanword; the only problem here is that the Turks never wore boots but slippers and so they had to invent a word in ancient times so that they could loan it to the horse-riding, boot-sporting Magyars in one of the coming centuries.

The Slavic loan words of these MTA inspired dictionaries – which in reality belong to the most ancient mono-consonantal group of Magyar words – can be found only in Slavic territories which neighbor Hungary but are absent in the great Eastern expanses of Slavic languages. This sheds a completely different light onto the direction of word-transmission. There are no Turkish,-- foremost Chuvas and Ob-Ugrian – so-called loan-words mentioned in Prof. Alinei’s book. It will be easy for later researchers to clarify this matter. Prof. Dr. László Marácz is presently researching the question of “official” loanwords in the Magyar language.

ad. 14.

The above three theses resulted in the following answers:

d. The Magyar and the Ob-Ugrian languages were unified in Western Asia in the 3rd. and 4th c. B.C.

e. When the Magyars separated from the Ob-Ugrians they came under Turkish influence again.

f. The Magyars arrived in the Carpathian Basin in 3,000 B.C. and their role in the formation of the ancient Villanovans and Etruscans is beyond doubt.

g. The Magyars were present in the over-land and over-sea arriving population.

h. Further contact could have taken place during the contact with the Sea People. These “Sea-People” are recognized as Magyars by the official Hungarian scholarship too and they place them in the II. millennium B.C.

i. One such famous “Sea-People” is the Tursha group who fought with the Egyptians. The Lemnos inscriptions show that such a meeting was probable.

The 14th point again shows us the Magyars, struggling between the Ob-Ugors and the Turks. He places their arrival in the Carpathian Basin in the 3rd millennium B.C., which is a very late date if we take into consideration the time needed to develop language and literacy. The Magyars had their own script in 7,000 B.C. in the Carpathian Basin and its beginnings lead us into a great antiquity.

According to Professor Alinei’s thesis, the Magyar and Ob-Ugor languages were unified in Western Asia in the 4th and 3rd millennium B.C. This supposition can be accepted only as far as later research will prove the presence of Magyars there, and who were the remnants of a once migrating group coming from the Carpathian Basin.

The Magyar connection with the Sea People never reached the consciousness of the common people and never became a subject of history in Hungarian schools. Independent researchers show which Magyar ethnic groups can be counted among the “Sea People”, among which I will mention now only the most obvious – the Ias and Pannon people.

ad. 15.

Professor Alinei mentions that the two names for the Etruscans – the Tusci and Etrusci – originated from the Greek Tyrsenoi. He also poses the question: could one attach all these names to the name “Turchi” or “Turk”? “In other words could it precede the long line of Altaic or Turkish names, which the Magyars gave during the course of centuries”: Magyar, Avar, Turk, Baskir and Hun, all of which are of Altaic origin?

He places the birth of “the Turkish people believed to be ancient Magyars” in the Bronze Age, when the increase of industry in the Carpathian Basin facilitated the expansion of population.

I shall discuss in detail the Tusci, Tyrsenoi, etc. names of the Etruscans in the forthcoming linguistic section, first Professor Alinei’s theory concerning the first appearance of these names and later the basic linguistic layer of these names.

He places the birth of “The ancient Magyars believed to be Turkish people” in the Bronze Age, when industry facilitated their expansion.

The flourishing of an industry depends upon the settled state of the supporting society. Concerning the metal industry we know that all “Metal-ages” (gold, copper, bronze, iron and their alloys) began in the Carpathian Basin in Europe[12]. The basic words for metals and their finished products rest upon Magyar root-words.

*

SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAGYAR LANGUAGE.

The “official” Hungarian science of linguistics never researched the basic characteristics of the Magyar language, which are different from the characteristics of the Indo-European languages. Its comparative studies relating to word origins are still following the first insecure linguistic steps of the 19th century and for this reason they prevented the linguistic communities of the world from finding their way more safely to their own beginnings. I discuss these specific Magyar linguistic phenomena in my work: Organic Magyar Linguistics.[13] In my present article I will bring up the origin of a few words mentioned in Professor Alinei’s book and their specifically Magyar properties.

The first one to mention is the Magyar word-root system, which is the reflection of the thought patterns of a given ethnicity and their expression. Adorján Magyar recognized 16 such linguistic units, each of which expressed its particular cultic vocabulary pertaining to God, Life and sustenance within a closed consonantal unit within the Magyar language.

A few of these units:

Name Consonants God’s name Symbol Sungod Name of Man

Magyar G, GY, H – M, N Ég Mag Magúr Magyar

Szemere S,Sz,Z,Zs,C,Cs-M,N Ős, Ur Szem Szemúr Szemere

Kun K – N, T Ék Kő Kund Kun

Jász J – S, SZ, Z, ZS, C, CS Jó Jázmin Jós Jász

Őstörök T, D – R, L Ur Turka Tor, Török Turkán,

Marmar M, N – R, L Ar Márna Mord Marmar

I have to explain here that the above names are only the basic components of the names and vocabulary of the ancient ethnic groups and a great many concepts and names belong to each of these groups. I also have to emphasize that all these linguistic groups – I may call them consonantal groups also but then I would leave out the essence of language development – belong within the unity of the Magyar culture and language, beginning at an age when only God and his man appeared on the stage of history. These groups, during their later stage of development, became parts of the newly forming nations. Sometimes, a newly formed nation kept the name of its most influential ethnic component but these cannot be equated with the name of nations who live today within a political unit under one of these ethnic names. More closely: The ancient Török or Turuk ethnic group undoubtedly played a large part in the formation of today’s Turkey and the Turkish language, but this was not its only component. The Turks of whom Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote in his De Imperio were a part of the still living ancient Turuk-Magyar (and not Turkish) language group, which still spoke the ancient Turuk (Turk) dialect of the Magyar language. This fact is not recognized by today’s Hungarian linguists, but was well recognized by Constantine. The Turuk emissary visiting his land was Tormás, whose name also belonged to the same T-R word-group of the Magyar language.

These consonantal linguistic roots can be found in every language of the world. Our question needs to be the following: which ancient groups formed the language and culture of a certain people and in what percent? Most often we find the influence of the agricultural Szemere Sz-M consonantal group, which unwittingly supports Professor Krantz’s theory, in which he discusses that the agricultural people had the greatest role in the expansions of cultures, since they had the most surplus in grain and other goods. It was this group that can be found even at great distances from the Carpathian Basin. Settlements close to the Carpathian Basin could be formed by fewer participants and resources. In the case of the Etruscan civilization, the ancient Török group’s spread was such.

Professor Alinei’s theory, in connection with the ancient name of the Etruscans, is correct and it can be led back to this T-R Turuk word-group.

We also have to mention the system of reciprocity in the Magyar language, which expresses the masculine/feminine concepts, or the relationship of force and matter through reciprocity. All Magyar ancient consonantal groups used this method, except the ancient Turuk, which signaled with vowels the masculine (a, o, u) and the feminine (á, é). In languages that borrowed these words, the use of these vowels and the concept behind them become obscured and are frequently incorrect. The word tér (space) designates a two dimensional, the word tár (to open wide) a three dimensional concept which is also present in the line of the speaker’s mouth as one pronounces these: pronouncing the first (tér) we draw our lips horizontally, in the case of the second (tár), we have to open it wide thus there is an organic connection between concept and sound-formation.

The Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) and the Szemere groups were part of the culture we call today Sumerian. Oppert counted them among the Scythians. The Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) dialect left its mark in the Sumerian language, such as in the name of the city of Ur, which they founded. There are several bull/turka decorations in this region. The decoration of a music box shows Ur-opa (Father Ur) between two bulls (turka)[14].

In Hungary they marked their presence in the following geographic names: the river Tur, Turján, Durján, (these words mean raised earthen structures), Túróc, Túrkeve, Dorog, Dorozsma, in Szatmár county Túrvékonya, Túrmező (its Croatian name is Turopolje).

The Tűrings of Tűringia are from the Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) group. The Turinheim, Turingheim place names also preserved their memory.

Dürkheim (in Bavaria), the crest of the city shows a pair of bull-horns (tulokszarv) in a mirror-image position.

Tyrol’s name is akin to the turul word (this is the symbolic bird of the Magyars). Its crest shows an eagle, the Turul.

Trento is south of Tyrol. In Roman times it was called Tridentum.

The Etruscans who moved between Switzerland and Italy left the following place names:

Raetia (a segment of Switzerland which included Tyrol), whose inhabitants were believed to be Etruscans. The Magyar word rét designates a matriarchal branch of the Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) group. In Raetia, the Etruscan language was still spoken in the 2nd century A.D.[15]

Razenna’s name is also matriarchal. According to Adorján Magyar’s research, the base of today’s Rétoromán, Ladins and Furlán dialects is Etruscan. Razenna also carries the name of the symbolic flower of the Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) group, which is the rózsa (rose), which leads back in its reciprocal form to the word sár = light, shine.

Turusk was a variation of the Etruscan name. The „isk” ending here is the equivalent of today’s Magyar “i” meaning “from” and it is known from history, like:

Falisk = from Italy

Avarisk = from Pannonia

Nordisk = Germanic

The German equivalent of this “isk” is “isch” (Ungarisch, etc.), in the Slavic languages it is the –szki, –icki, –szko, –szka suffix.

Torino, or Turin, in Roman times Taurinum, or Taurasia, shows a bull (turka) in its crest.

Troy – This city’s architecture emphasizes the bull-horn designs (turka tülkös). The cities of Torja and Torda in Hungary belong to the same word-group. The word “torja” means rotation. The founder of Troy was Dardanos and his name belongs also in this T-R word-group. The Roman Emperor, Diocletianus, founded Dardania in Transylvania.[16]

The reciprocal of the Etruscan Goddess Turán, Tezan is rét, retenna, razenna which is also the Etruscans’ own name. I recognize, as the earliest representation of the Goddess Turan, the Venus of Lausel, which is a 35,000 year-old relief, on which a female form holds a bull horn (turka tülök) in her uplifted right hand. It was at this same time, that bovines became numerous in this region, states the scientist who researched this region.[17] The text of the famous Etruscan bronze mirror also mentions the Goddess Tezan, who is identical with Turán.[18]

The knowledge of copper (réz) is at the base of this T-R dialect.

The Italians call the Etruscans Toscano, Tosco and Tusco. There are variations of Torkán, Torko, Turko, Török and today’s Turkish are also called Turco.

The Latin word terra belongs into this word-group and it is the word of the Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) tér, tár – meaning a circle returning within itself.

Rutennu – the Assyrians fought with these people.

Ruténs – this name with which they designate themselves is also of Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) origin.

Turuk people are mentioned in the Assyrian cuneiforms.

Rotennu people and a Ruten country is remembered in Syria by Egyptian historians.

The common denominator of all these names is the Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) T-R word-root.

The Etruscans were remembered as Tyrsenoi, which is based upon the same linguistic base as the Goddesses Turán and Tezán and their name is remembered in the name of the Tyrrhenian Sea and Tuscany.

The softened T-L words are also part of this T-R word-group.

Ell, elleni (to birth) is connected with birth and a watery beginning (lé=liquid), and the word lét (existence) belongs here too, along with – some change in meaning -- the Latin river Lete. In Magyar, the words lőre, lötty, etc. carry the meaning of watery environments, where ladik (boat) is the vehicle of travel on water.

In Asia Minor, the country, Lydia and the nation, Líd still have a purely Turkish population, which echoes their connection with the Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) people. Professor Alinei mentions Herodotus in connection with the Etruscans who arrived from Lydia under the leadership of Tyrsenos. All these names are part of the Őstörök (Ancient) Turkic T-R word-group.

Today, the ancient Sun-deities are remembered as national heroes. One of these is the Estonian Toll. Here father and son are called by the same name, which already shows a deterioration of the ancient language and the concept behind it. The Father, the Old God’s name is always mono-consonantal and so it must have been Ol in ancient times. It is very probable that words for antiquity, of age like the German alt, the English old, were derived from this name. The bi-consonantal name Toll was the name of the Sun-, or Son-god.

The legend of William Tell originated in the Uri canton of Switzerland, which is still famous for its cows and cattle (turka).

The Magyar Miklós Toldi was once a Sun-God figure.

The above Sun-deities had one thing in common: they all carried a huge rod or some other poking instrument, or weapon which was the symbol of their male strength.

After this short introduction I will discuss some of the linguistic details of Professor Alinei’s work. I am going to begin with some words that belong to the ancient nature-words, keeping in mind the scope of this paper and this will be followed by some cultural words mentioned by him. Concerning the latter, I have to emphasize again that by the time a nation reaches the higher societal standards and the names of officers upholding these functions become standardized, several thousand years have to elapse. If the people, whom Professor Alinei mentions as Villanovans from the Carpathian Basin, inherited these words from the inhabitants of the Carpathian Basin, then these had to be Magyars in culture and language. For this reason, the statement of paragraph 3: “Of course the Carpathian Basin and Danube people are not yet Magyars” is not only questionable but should be rejected.

Page 40.

5.1. RASNA: “tartomány, terület” (territory)

In his interpretation of this word, the author mentions the following words: határ, terület and tartomány (border, territory). He equates these with the Magyar word rész, which means part of something and also carries the meaning of a piece, a dose of something.

We may add to this Rasna, the Etruscan Tarkste, meaning market-place, which later became the name-giver of Trieste, a city south of Retia, whose old name was Tergeste, Tergesta which – correctly – should have been Tarkaste to avoid the accumulation of consonants.

All these words and names of settlements belong into the T-R word-group and, under certain circumstances, they are the reciprocal forms of one another (Tergeste – Retia).

The word affiliations of the word root rész are the following:

Tér, tár, words of femininity, always denote territory and the capability to encompass, to enfold, to receive and are always expressed – as mentioned before – with high vowels. The words határ, terület and tartomány (border, territory) rest upon this base along with the words terem, terület (a hall, territory).

The words rét, rész (meadow, part of something) are the reciprocals of the word tér. The túr, tűr, tor elements are the masculine variation of these and mean strength and motion.[19]

Page 42

5.2. MEX: it is the name the Etruscans called themselves.

I would like to call attention -- before discussing anything else -- to the fact that the Etruscans refer to themselves by the same name Mag as the Magyars use to refer to themselves, even though outsiders recognize this nation only by the name Hungarian. This name, which shines through the mists of history, is of prime importance.

It is an equally important fact that they used their own name Mag in conjunction with their ethnic T-R word-group’s Turuk or Őstörök (Ancient Turkic) name and identity, which is clearly present in their later names and their language, and all the “outsiders” called them by this ethnic name. They still recognized themselves as Mag, just as all the Magyar ethnic groups still call themselves by their ethnic name within the Magyar culture: Székely-Magyars, Palóc-Magyars, etc. So if we want to call the Etruscans by their correct name, we need to bring their ethnicity within the Magyar culture to the forefront and call them Turuk-Magyars, Őstörök-Magyars. We owe great gratitude to Professor Alinei for focusing our attention on the Mag name of the Etruscans. After this introduction let us see Professor Alinei’s further deductions:

“The first part of the magyar/mager word-combination, the mag-/meg- is no longer present in the Magyar language, unless we consider the form mese (in this form it is present in other Ugric languages).” says Professor Alinei. It is very hard to resist the temptation to grab the word mese (story, fiction) and turn the researcher’s attention toward the MTA. At the same time, he accepts the word meχ as Magyar but, as far as its origin is concerned, he turns toward the word mansi and handles it as “the only Ugor word.” There are a great many examples of the Mag name in antiquity: on the Aegean islands, Heracles was known as Makar and Mag, the Phoenicians called their God who thought them agriculture Mag.

Earlier we already met the base of the word mag, which is still alive and going strong and which belongs to the Magyar M-G consonantal group. Its origins can be led to the following mono-consonantal ancient forms:

Ég the name of God. It is still used in the expression “Ég áldjon” , may God bless you!

ég to burn, which is also part of our metabolism.

egy one. It is also a name of God

egyed individual as a part of God

ige the word of God

igaz truth, light

agg very old

Ok cause. It is also another name of God.

etc….

When the M sound of materiality is attached to the above, we get:

mag seed, the base of the earthly life

Magor the Lord of the Seed, the Sun, which was considered a mag.

Magyar the child of Mag-úr or Magor,

megye land of the Magyars

megyer a symbol of the Sun (in the palóc dialect it is called pálca, etc.)

meggy sour-cherry, a round, one seeded fruit, which is also a Sun symbol.

Ancient Kun vocabulary:

Mén the name of God

mén stallion, the symbol of the ever wandering Moon. The German Mond, the English Moon and the Italian mendicare take their origin from here.

menés to walk

mony symbol of the masculine

monno archaic one

manó man

manyó old woman

menyecske young woman

etc….

The above mentioned mese belongs into the Sz-M vocabulary of the agricultural Szemere. At this point – due to the limited scope of this paper -- I am unable to discuss this word-group but it is important to mention that the spread of this word-group and ethnic component of the Magyar culture can be found almost everywhere.

I would also like to mention that the base of the words kom, kum is the Ancient Kun K-N word-group’s word kan which means a universal masculinity.

The words er, ar mean strength and therefore masculinity in the ancient Magyar vocabulary.

Szóljon hozzá!

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